Species of Cherry Trees

While they are genetically different, different species of cherries (Prunus) are still able to crossbreed to produce similar trees. You can identify a cherry tree in springtime from its white or pink flowers and shiny, red-brown bark having brown or gray horizontal stripes. It is more difficult to identify the species of the tree; distinct species have somewhat distinct flowers and leaves, shapes and growth habits. Cherry species include both fruiting and flowering trees.

Sweet Cherries

The cherry species whose fruit you find most often in grocery shops, sweet cherry (Prunus avium), grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 8 to approximately 35 feet tall with an erect and spreading contour. Like all cherries, sweet cherries do best with complete sun, regular watering and well-draining soil. Varieties include “Bing,” which produces large, dark red fruit, and “Van,” which produces smaller black fruit.

Sour Cherries

With fruit used primarily for baking, sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) grow about 25 feet tall in USDA zones 4 through 9 and create purple or red fruit throughout the summer. “Surefire” produces bright red fruit that truly has a sweet flavor so that you may eat it fresh, while “North Star” has very sour fruit with reddish skin and yellow flesh.

Standard Upright Flowering Cherries

Standard, upright cherries incorporate those located on the Washington Monument grounds in Washington, D.C., such as the Yoshino flowering cherry (Prunus x yedoensis), at USDA zones 5 through 8, and also the “Kwanzan” cherry (Prunus serrulata “Kwanzan”), at USDA zones 5 through 9. Standard cherry species grow up to 40 feet tall and 30 feet wide, with white or pink flowers. They function nicely versed above flower beds to offer partial shade, lining a drive or growing in a prominent spot in your lawn as a tree that is standalone.

Other Flowering Cherries

Flowering cherry trees arrive in weeping, spreading and columnar shapes as well as vertical shapes. Weepers grow from 10 to 15 feet tall, and include the “Pendula” variety (Prunus x subhirtella “Pendula”) for USDA zones 5 through 8. Spreaders grow wider than they are tall, like “Shirotae,” a variety of the species Prunus serrulata. Columnar trees have a tall and narrow shape, growing from 40 to 60 feet tall.

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Information about the Key Lime Tree

The Key lime tree (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle), also popularly known as the Mexican algae or West Indian lime, is precious across U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11 as an ornamental because of its kind, foliage and blossoms, in addition to for the little, acidic fruits it produces.

Habit, Form and Hardiness

The Key lime tree is an evergreen, meaning it keeps its foliage year-round. This plant grows very vigorously, reaching a mature height of 6 1/2 to 13 feet. Key lime trees possess lots of slender, spreading branches, appearing bushy with a curved, umbrella or vase-like canopy shape. The Key lime is vulnerable to cold damage, suffering injury to foliage below 32 degrees Fahrenheit and timber damage or death if temperatures drop below 29 degrees Fahrenheit.

Foliage and Bark

The evergreen leaves of this Key lime are mild purplish when young and dull dark-green when mature. These leathery, elliptical leaves measure 2 to 3 inches long with little, curved teeth. The foliage grows densely and has a pleasant scent. The slender branches of the majority of Essential lime trees have lots of sharp 3/8-inch long spines. There are a number of spineless cultivars; those selections produce less fruit, have darker green foliage and are more streamlined.

Flowers and Fruit

Key lime tree blossoms, appearing on the plant in spring, are faintly fragrant, white and measure 2 inches across. The key lime fruit that develops from these flowers is born singly or in clusters and is around or slightly elliptical and sometimes has a small nipple at the same end. The fruits generally have a diameter of 1 1/2 to 2 inches and have a thin peel that is greenish yellow to yellow in maturity. The greenish yellow pulp is juicy, acidic and split into 10 to 12 segments.

Site Preferences and Applications

The Key lime tree performs best if planted in full sunlight and at least 12 to 20 feet away from structures and other trees. It may grow well in a range of soils, including sites that are highly alkaline or acidic. Good soil drainage is very important to Key lime tree growth; nutrient deficiencies and disorders can occur where excessive moisture lasts around the plant’s root system. The Key lime tree can be planted as a specimen, utilized as a screen or hedge or espaliered.

Care Considerations.

Recently planted Key lime trees require watering at planting, every other day for about a week, after which one or two times per week for the first two or three months following planting. Once shown, only occasional watering during prolonged dry periods is warranted. Occasional, though not excessive application of a balanced fertilizer will encourage Vital lime tree vigor. A paling or mottling of leaves may indicate a nutrient deficiency. Excessive fertilizer can stimulate a feeling of new growth especially vulnerable to pests and diseases. A light pruning to thin out the canopy and remove problematic crossing or rubbing branches is best done soon after fruit harvest.

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Purple Coneflowers Characteristics

Purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) goes to the Asteraceae family members and bears dailylike flowers on straight stems above clumps of dense foliage. Flowers generally bloom from spring until frost. Echinacea flowers are usually used as boundaries, in containers and also in gardens planted along with other perennials. Purple coneflower has features which differentiate it from other coneflowers.


Purple coneflower has coarsely toothed foliage that forms a dense clump from which tall, stiff stems emerge. Purple coneflower grows a single blossom atop a 2- to 5-foot stem. The flowers have droopy, lavender petals that surround a purplish-brown, spiky, domed center. Otherwise deadheaded, flowers heads turn into your bristly seed head that pulls finches. The purple coneflower looks like its close relative Rudbeckia spp.

Growing Conditions

Purple coneflower is an easy-to-care-for perennial and hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture hardiness zones 3 through 9. Plants thrive in well-drained soil, but do tolerate drought, making them perfect for xeriscaping. Purple coneflower prefers full sun, but tolerates light shade, especially in warm weather; shade enhances the color of the petals. Plants readily self-sow if blossom heads are left to produce seed, but plants aren’t known to be invasive.


Purple coneflower is a low-maintenance plant and propagation is typically accomplished by seed. Plants don’t like their roots disturbed, thus don’t split unless the plants look crowded. After division, plants are known to create numerous stems and several flowers. Deadheading promotes new flower growth, extending the blooming period. Removing spent flowers also prevents self-sowing. Flower heads that stay on stems create a winter interest as well as the seeds attract birds.

Landsape utilizes

Purple coneflowers’ long, stiff stems make them excellent for cut flowers, but they also have many different uses. Since they are long-bloomers, groups of purple coneflowers are usually planted in places such as boundaries, meadows and gardens that are crocheted. Plants are frequently grouped in mass plantings along with black-eyed Susans to create a wildflower or woodland garden.

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The ideal Tomato Grafting Clips

What heirloom tomato crops deficiency in vigor, they make up for in their superior tasting tomatoes. You can have the best of both worlds — flavorful heirloom tomatoes developed on vigorous plants — by grafting them. By deciding on the best grafting clips for the task, you may present your newly grafted tomato crops their very best chance at a healthy beginning.


Grafting is an instance of when one plus one equals one. 1 plant’s roots, known as the stock, splices to another plant’s stem, known as the scion. The result is one plant that has the very best qualities of both contributing plants. Hybrid plants have been bred for higher endurance against pests and disease. When you graft an heirloom tomato scion onto a hybrid tomato rootstock, the new plant is better able to withstand these challenges due to the benefit of “hybrid vigor.”

Best Methods

Cleft, whip-and-tongue and side are a few of the different grafting methods. Plant type, like fruit trees, woody ornamentals or herbaceous plants, determines which grafting way is best. The University of Connecticut Cooperative Extension lists three primary tomato grafting forms: cleft, tube and tongue approach. Cleft and tube grafts are similar in that each requires tomato comes to be completely severed before joining plant parts together. They differ in the shapes of their cuts. The tongue process graft allows the 2 plants to remain on their own rootstocks while joined together at small cuts on each stem. In all 3 grafts, silicone clips hold plants until they fuse together.

Best Clips

Cleft and tongue approach grafts need slightly older plants for success. The very best grafting clips for these methods are more curved, and slightly bigger than the ones that you will need for tube grafts since they have to hold heavier, or older, stems that are 1/8 to 1/4 inch in diameter. The very best grafting clips for tube grafts are more elongated and smaller, for holding stalks on younger plants that are 1/16 around 1/8 inches in diameter.


The ability necessary to graft tomato seedlings is beyond the range of fundamental gardening, but may be achieved with training. You must align cut surfaces properly or grafts will be ineffective. Sterilize tools before making any cuts, and between every cut, and therefore you don’t introduce infection pathogens. If the graft union is not at least 1/2 inch above the ground, roots from the more disease-prone scion plant may grow into soil and present soilborne diseases to this plant. This will defeat 1 purpose of having a grafted tomato plant.

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How Long to Wait to Plant Watermelon Later Fertilizer?

Watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) are warm-season fruits that are extremely sensitive to cold. They should be planted only when the soil temperature rises around 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Because they are planted so late, other plants in the garden might determine when soil preparation with fertilizer occurs. However, when preparing dirt particularly for watermelons, the sort of fertilizer that you use will determine the length of time it is necessary to wait for soil preparation and planting.

Uncomposted Organics

Uncomposted organics, such as animal manures, are turned to the soil before planting and also have a complete set of nutrients for growing watermelons. Nutrient ratios for raw animal and bird manures are between 0.5-0.2-0.4 and 4.5-2-2 based on the origin and contain the crucial micro-nutrients. Uncomposted organics aren’t completely decomposed and can burn off new plant roots if seeds are planted too soon after application. Wait at least 14 days prior to planting the watermelon seeds after using these products.


Composted fertilizers are organic wastes that are decomposed by microbes. If the compost is made solely from lawn wastes, the sulfur content can be extremely low and the compost will need to be mixed with a nitrogen-rich fluid such as animal manure. Blending compost and animal manure in a 1-to-1 ratio can significantly lessen the chance of burning off the watermelon roots. When mixing compost with animal manure, watermelons can be planted just a few days after application. If utilizing compost lonely, watermelons can be planted immediately.

Synthetic Fertlizers

Artificial fertilizers are salts that discharge usable nutrients to the soil with rain or irrigation. They do not require a waiting period between mixing with the dirt and planting, but the quantity of synthetic fertilizer used should be carefully quantified. Too much artificial fertilizer added to the ground will likely burn the roots of watermelons no matter how long you wait to plant the seeds.

Cover Crops

Cover crops are plants that are grown to your half-mature stage and then plowed under the ground. This procedure enhances soil structure and adds natural nutrients to the ground in a single therapy. The use of cover crops, such as soybeans in the summer or cereal rye in winter, will greatly reduce the need for additional fertilizer during the growing season. A cover crop should be plowed under the soil three to four weeks prior to planting seeds in the garden.

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How Much Space Between Ponderosa Pines?

Majestic ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) stretch to a mature height of over 100 feet tall when permitted to grow for several centuries at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 8. Decorated with needle tufts along the branches, this evergreen plant resembles a Christmas tree when it is immature. Growing these pines however, requires consideration of the spacing, particularly if you’re planting more than one tree at a line formation.

Ideal Spacing for Young Trees

The spacing between each plant ranges from 3 to 10 feet when planting saplings or ponderosa seeds. If you’re attempting to set a tree which will remain in position for a period of time, it is the trees to 10 feet. Its girth grows as wide as 6 feet as the tree grows. Retaining good spacing between trees reduces competition that may harm more or one of the crops. For instance ponderosas deal with drought by using moisture reservations that are internal, however, young saplings must have ample water or else they may wilt and be stunted.

Root Spread

Ponderosa pines use a deep taproot as a institution base whilst sending shallow to deep fibrous roots out in the soil structure. To get a young tree, these roots desire a soil environment to ward off disease and decay. If you distance amend the soil as needed and the pines properly, the roots have enough space and soil structure to propagate wide as a tree establishment that is solid. Planting the pines triggers root competition and intertwining; than another, one tree gains moisture and nutrients in any stage , causing dieback from the afflicted pine.

Crown Expansion

Another factor that is spacing is the width of your crown. At maturity, the pyramid shape changes to a tall arrangement with branches the canopy starts to crowd trees, although both the root and trunk system have enough distance. It may be necessary to thin your ponderosa pine collection by transferring young trees until they grow too tall. If abandoned without maintenance become intertwined. Any branches turn into nightmares to cut and form, if you anticipate pruning the pines.

Sun Considerations

Your spacing impacts the trees’ ability to grow over the years. Requiring sun, ponderosa pines suffer from growth if shaded during the vast majority of the day, stunting. Appropriate spacing allows sun to penetrate between trees, particularly when the sun dips down during winter. As these trees are generally used as windbreaks onto a house, allowing some distance between the trees allows you to have any breezes throughout the year whilst protecting the house from drafts.

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Landscape Mulch Before & After

Mulching helps control weeds, conserves moisture, maintains an even soil temperature and prevents soil erosion through wind and rain. Plant based mulches such as straw, bark or leaf waste, also enrich your land. What you must do before and after mulching depends upon soil temperature, moisture levels and time annually.


The best time to lay mulch is when the soil is nice and moist, since it helps seal in the humidity and it is difficult for rain to penetrate whether the soil under the mulch is dry. When sowing seeds, then it is a fantastic idea to wait until late spring before mulching, to give the dirt time to warm up, as most seeds need warmth to germinate. The best time of year to mulch is early summer, when the soil is warm and moist.


If you’re applying mulch for your house garden for the first time, then you can lay cardboard or paper, then apply the mulch on top. It’s difficult for weed seedlings and shoots to penetrate the paper. If you put in your paper beneath a drip irrigation system, you may still achieve it easily for maintenance. Leaving a space of approximately 2 inches around woody stems or tree trunks prevents the moist paper from encouraging rot.

After Mulching

To plant at a mulched bed, then it is ideal to push the mulch aside and cut an X in the paper. Then you’re able to pull the sides of the plant and cut at the space, shut the sides when you’ve finished and spread the mulch back to your plant. As the year progresses, plant-based mulches decompose and add nutrients to your soil, which means you’ll need to top it up, but stop as winter approaches, as plants need drainage through the winter months.

Distinct Mulches

You must employ coarse-textured mulches at approximately 4 inches deep and fine-textured ones 2 inches deep, since they pack down closely. Bark mulches have a while to rot down, which means you can not need to top these up for a year or more. Wheat and oat straw contain weed seeds, which you will need to kill before usage. One way to do this is to leave the bales exposed to winter rain for a month, however, remember to leave them in which you plan to utilize them because soaked bales are heavy to transfer.

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When to Fertilize & Plant Grass With Dogs

Planting and maintaining your yard can quickly develop into a lost cause when you have dogs which often play and remove in the areas you’ve planted. New grass demands a window of time free of damaging aspects like playful pups running around on it. Fertilizer, on the other hand, can be a danger to your furry family members.

Seed Vs. Sod

The one major advantage of seeding your new yard above buying sod is cost. Another advantage is the various hybrid mixtures available in seed. But when you have puppies, seeding can pose problems, as you want to keep your pooches off of the young tender grass for a period of time. Sod, on the other hand, is slightly more hardy against foot traffic, although you and your dogs should steer clear of the new sod for the first 4 to 6 weeks. Planting from seed should always be done in the spring or fall, waiting until the danger of frost has passed in the spring as well as you allow plenty of time for the roots to develop until cold temperatures hit in the fall. Generally speaking, warm-season species should be planted in spring and cool-season grasses should be planted in fall. Plant sod anytime throughout the calendar year, except during very cold temperatures or extreme heat.

Protecting New Grass

Once you’ve sown the seeds for planting, cover them with 1 inch of a medium layer of straw to help maintain the required moisture and provide a little protection to the seed from the dog’s paws. While the grass is sprouting, take your dog out on a leash or give him a tie-out which will keep him off from the germinating grass or new sod. You can also put up a temporary fence made from poultry wire and stakes, much like you would do to keep animals from a vegetable garden.


Generally speaking, lawns are fertilized while the grass is growing. To get cool-season grasses, this is during the spring and fall. Warm-season grasses tend to develop during the summertime. You can generally use a pesticide specifically intended for new lawns, but a soil test will tell you exactly how much and what types of fertilizer to use. The fertilizing time does not change because of your dog, however you will have to keep your dog safe from the potentially hazardous side effects of the fertilizer.

Security Factors

Some fertilizers are completely safe for the dog, even when he eats it. Others, however, can cause mild to serious side effects and deaths have happened from fertilizer exposure. The fertilizer you choose will most likely mention the level of security to pets around the label. The package should also record how long to keep your dog away from the fertilized area. Even though you do not see your dog eating the fertilizer off the ground, it may get stuck on his paws or coat and ingested during cleaning.

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List of Aquatic Plants

Aquatic plants include more than just aesthetic value to bodies of water; they all play a vital role in creating a balanced ecosystem. Aquatic plants help keep the water cool and function as a food source for wildlife. Aquatic plants may typically be split into classes based on their specific feature: submersible, emergent and floating.

Submersible Plants

The plants which grow entirely under the water are known as submersible plants. Their leaves generally float through the water but might develop long leaf that goes to the surface. A few examples of submersible crops are Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and hornwort (Ceratophyllum demersum) both growing in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 10. Canadian waterweed creates dropping lanced shaped foliage that acts as a cover for insect larvae, fish and other aquatic wildlife. Hornwort has feather-like leaf and also is often used as a aquarium plant for its oxygenating properties.

Emergent Plants

Emergent plants are rooted in the bottom of bodies of water but grow well over the water. Many of these aquatic plants grow in several inches of standing water with soggy soil such as the conditions located at the edge of ponds, lakes and streams. These aquatic plants help prevent erosion and stabilize banks while providing food and cover for aquatic wildlife, beneficial insects and amphibians. Cattails (Typha spp.) , rushes (Juncus spp.) and sedges (Carex spp.) Are a couple of plants that are emergent. Depending on the species, these grass-like aquatic plants grow in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 10.

Floating Acids

Floating aquatic plants have foliage that floats on the surface of the water. All these vital plants supply food, shelter and cover to amphibians, turtles and aquatic life. Among the most popular aquatic plants is waterlilles (Nymphaea spp.) , which grow in USDA zones 3 through 11. They create large lily pad foliage that floats on the water surface and magnificent flowers. Floating hearts (Nymphoides spp.) — located in USDA zones 5 through 11 — appear like a smaller version of the waterlily and create blooms which are not as impressive. Water shield (Brasenia schreberi) creates broad foliage which has a shield-like shape and delicate purple blooms sitting just above the water surface. This floating aquatic plant grows in USDA zones 6 through 9.

Undesirable Plants

Not all aquatic plants have been desired; a few species are thought to be unwanted due to their aggressive nature. Among the most popular undesirable aquatic plants is algae, which grows rapidly and produces the water appear dirty. Algae are really not a plant but also a plant-like organism which covers the surface of the water. Algae can grow in such abundance that it kills desirable aquatic plants and also threatens the life of aquatic wildlife such as fish. Duckweed (Lemna minor) has both positive and negative facets. This small free-floating aquatic plant acts as a food source for ducks but multiplies quickly and can protect the entire surface of slopes. It grows in USDA zones 4 through 10 and can be found in ponds, mud puddles and slow-moving streams.

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How to Propagate Lemon Verbena

Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla), some small species of perennial shrub, is grown for its slender, aromatic foliage and dainty flower clusters, that include ornamental appeal in the summer. It rises in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 8 to 10, where it will reach a rise of 1 to 3 feet using an 18-inch spread. Lemon verbena propagates best from semi-hardwood cuttings taken in midsummer, which will root in a couple of weeks — with or without rooting hormone — if kept under warm, humid conditions.

Fill a 4-inch plastic or terra cotta pot using a mixture of equal parts perlite, coarse sand and coir. Saturate the mixture with water and let it drain.

Collect a 4- to 6-inch-long semi-hardwood cutting out of a mature, healthy lemon verbena plant. Pick one with lots of leaf, no busy flowers along with a stem diameter of about 1/4 inch.

Sever the cutting edge 1/16 inch under a set of leaves with sharp pruning shears or a utility blade. Strip off all the leaves out of along the lower one-half of the cutting edge to expose the nodes.

Dust the severed end and exposed nodes using rooting hormone powder to accelerate root manufacturing, if wanted. Apply the powder using a clean cotton swab. Gently tap or visualize the stem to knock off excess powder.

Poke a hole in the center of this perlite mixture. Be sure the hole deep enough to hold the defoliated portion of this lemon verbena stem. Insert the stem and then push the perlite mix snugly against it. Drizzle water around the stem to settle on the mix.

Place the potted lemon verbena cutting within a 1-gallon clear plastic bag. Secure the bag around the underside of the pot using a rubber band. Make a 1-inch cut in the cover of the bag to allow any trapped moisture to escape.

Set the pot on a lightly shaded garden seat outside or indoors on an east-facing windowsill. Warm the pot to 70 degrees Fahrenheit using a propagation mat if daytime temperatures remain below 65 F. Shield the cutting from direct sunlight to keep it from wilting.

Remove the plastic bag every other day and test the moisture level in the perlite mix. Add water when it feels mostly dry under the surface. Mist the lemon verbena cutting with water to keep the leaves hydrated.

Check for roots in three to four weeks by gently pulling the base of the stem. Feel whether the cutting has anchored to the perlite mixture by roots. Remove the plastic bag one week after rooting.

Transplant the lemon verbena into a 4-inch container full of potting soil fourteen days after it roots. Grow it under gently shaded conditions. Acclimate it to direct sunlight within several days in early fall, then transplant it into a permanent bed.

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